Formación laboral de los trabajadores en España. Evolución durante el período de crisis y recuperación económica (2007- 2016)

  1. García Espejo, Isabel 1
  2. Ibáñez Pascual, Marta 1
  1. 1 Universidad de Oviedo

    Universidad de Oviedo

    Oviedo, España


Revista internacional de sociología

ISSN: 0034-9712

Year of publication: 2023

Volume: 81

Issue: 4

Type: Article

DOI: 10.3989/RIS.2023. DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR lock_openOpen access editor

More publications in: Revista internacional de sociología


This article sets out to analyze changes in access to job training for workers in Spain in the period between the economic crisis that began in 2008 and the years of economic recovery and consolidation up to 2016. The last three iterations of EUROSTAT’s “Survey on the Involvement of the Adult Population in Learning Activities” for Spain (2007, 2011, 2016) have been used for data collection. The study examines changes in the sociodemographic profiles of the workers and in the organizational environments that are associated with job training. The results indicate that the initial inequalities workers face in gaining access to this type of training did not reduce in the period under consideration but remained and even intensified.

Bibliographic References

  • Alba-Ramírez, Alfonso y María Tugores Ques. 2000, “Un estudio microeconómico sobre los determinantes y efectos de la formación en España”. Pp, 67-88 en Felipe Sáez Hernández (coord.) Formación y Empleo, Madrid: Fundación Argentaria.
  • Albert, Cecilia, Carlos García-Serrano y Virginia Hernanz. 2010. “On-the-job training in Europe: Determinants and wage returns”. International Labour Review 149(3): 315-341.
  • Asplund, Rita. 2005. “The Provision and Effects of Company Training: A Brief Review of the Literature”. Nordic Journal of Political Economy. 31: 47-73.
  • Baltagi, Badi. 1995. Econometric Analysis of Panel Data. Nueva York: John Wiley & Son.
  • Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (BBVA). 2020. Research: Situación de España en el primer trimestre de 2020. (
  • Biagetti, Marco y Sergio Scicchitano. 2009. “Inequality in workers’ lifelong learning cross European countries: Evidence from EU-SILC data-set”. MPRA Paper 17356, University Library of Munich, Alemania.
  • Boeren, Ellen, Ides Nicaise y Herman Baert. 2010. “Theoretical models of participation in adult education: The need for an integrated model”.International journal of lifelong education29(1): 45-61.
  • Boll, Christina y Elisabeth Bublitz. 2018. “A Cross-Country Comparison of Gender Differences in Job-Related Training: The Role of Working Hours and the Household Context”. British Journal of Industrial Relations 56(3): 503-555.
  • Brunello, Gorgio, Pietro Garibaldi y Etienne Wasner. 2007. Education and Training in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Cabrales, Antonio, Juan Dolado y Ricardo Mora. 2017. “Dual employment protection and (lack of) on-the-job training: PIAAC evidence for Spain and other European countries”.SERIEs8(4): 345-371.
  • Calero, Jorge y Josep Oriol Escardíbul. 2013. “Barreras a la formación profesional no reglada en España. Un análisis de su evolución en períodos de crecimiento y crisis económica, con especial atención al efecto del capital humano previo de los trabajadores”. Comunicación en Jornadas de la AEDE, La Coruña.
  • Caparrós Ruiz, Antonio, María Lucía Navarro Gómez y Mario F. Rueda Narváez. 2009. “Análisis de la incidencia y duración de la formación laboral financiada por empresas y trabajadores”. Cuadernos de Economía 32(89): 083-112.
  • Castany, Laia. 2010. “The role of size in firms’ training: evidence from Spain”.International Journal of Manpower 31(5): 563-585.
  • Comisión Europea. 2010. lmpact of ongoing Reforms in Education and Training in the Adult Learning Sector. Consulta (ç).
  • Comisión Europea. 2020. Documento de trabajo de los servicios de la Comisión. Informe sobre España 2020. Consulta (
  • Denkowska, Sabina, Kamil Fijorek y Grayzna Węgrzyn. 2020. “Formal and non-formal education and training as an instrument fostering innovation and competitiveness in EU member countries”. Journal of Competitiveness12(3): 82-98.
  • Dieckhoff, Martina. 2007. “Does it work? The effect of continuing training on labour market outcomes: a comparative study of Germany, Denmark, and the United Kingdom, European”. Sociological Review 23(3): 295-308.
  • Dieckhoff, Martina y Nadia Steiber. 2011. “A re‐assessment of common theoretical approaches to explain gender differences in continuing training participation”.British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49, s135-s157.
  • Diimmrich, Johana, Daniela Vono de Vilhena y Elisabeth Reichart. 2014. “Participation in Adult Learning in Europe: The Impact of Country-Level and Individual Characteristics”. Pp: 29-55 en Adult Learning in Modern Societies, editado por H.-P. Blossfeld. Cheltenham ; Northampton : Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Drewes, Torben. 2008.Adult education and training from a longitudinal perspective. Learning Research Series, Human Resources and Social Development Canada.
  • Dolado, Juan J., Salvador Ortigueira y Rodolfo Stucchi. 2016. “Does dual employment protection affect TFP? Evidence from Spanish manufacturing firms”.SERIEs 7(4): 421-459.
  • Ehlert, Martin. 2017. “Who benefits from training courses in Germany? Monetary returns to non-formal further education on a segmented labour market”.European Sociological Review 33(3): 436-448.
  • Escobar, Modesto, Jaime Rivière y Leticia Glik. 2010. “La distribución social de la formación permanente laboral en España”.Revista Española de Sociología 14: 43-66.
  • Felgueroso, Florentino. 2015. Claves para mejorar la educación y formación de adultos en España en la post-crisis. Estudios sobre la Economía Española, 12. Fundación de Estudios de Economía Aplicada (FEDEA), Madrid.
  • Fouarge, Didier, Trudie Schils y Andries de Grip, 2013. “Why do low-educated workers invest less in further training?”, Applied Economics (45)18: 2587-2601.
  • Frazis, Harley J., Diane E. Herz y Michael W. Horrigan. 1995. “Employer-provided training: results from a new survey”. Monthly Labor Review 118: 3-17.
  • Frazis, Harley J., Maury Gittleman y Mary Joyce. 2000. “Correlates of training: an analysis using both employer and employee characteristics”- Industrial and Labor Relations Review 53: 443-462.
  • Frazis, Harley J. y Mark A. Loewenstein. 2005. “Reexamining the returns to training functional form, magnitude, and interpretation”.Journal of Human Resources 40(2): 453-476.
  • Fritsche, Sebastian. 2012. “Determinants of training participation: A literature review and empirical support from personal-, job-, employer-and health related factors in Germany”. Network for Studies on Pensions, Aging and Retirement (NETSPAR), Thesis 025.
  • García Espejo, Isabel y Marta Ibáñez Pascual. 2013. “La educación no formal, Desigualdades en el acceso a la formación de los trabajadores en España”.Revista Internacional de Sociología 71(3): 593-616.
  • Green, Francis, Alan Felstead, Duncan Gallie, Hande Inanc y Nik Jewson. 2016. “The declining volume of workers’ training in Britain”,British Journal of Industrial Relations54(2): 422-448.
  • Haelermans, Carla y Lex Borghans. 2012. “Wage effects of on-the-job training: A meta-analysis”.British Journal of Industrial Relations50(3): 502-528.
  • Herrero, Pilar P. 2000. “Evaluación del impacto de la formación en las organizaciones”. Educar 27: 119-133.
  • INE 2008b. Encuesta sobre la participación de la población adulta en las actividades de aprendizaje.
  • INE 2011. Encuesta sobre la participación de la población adulta en las actividades de aprendizaje.
  • INE 2016. Encuesta sobre la participación de la población adulta en las actividades de aprendizaje.
  • Jimeno, Juan F. y Tanio Santos. 2014. “The crisis of the Spanish economy”.SERIEs 5(2): 125-141.
  • Jones, Melanie K., Paul L. Latreille y Peter J. Sloane. 2008. “Crossing the tracks? Trends in the training of male and female workers in Great Britain”,.British Journal of Industrial Relations 46(2): 268-282.
  • Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina, Yuliya Kosyakova, Anders Stenberg, Daniela Vono de Vilhena y Hans-Peter Bloosfeld. 2012.” The impact of formal adult education on the likelihood of being employed: A comparative overview”.Studies of Transition States and Societies4(1): 48-68.
  • Kirkpatrick, Donald L. 1997 Evaluación de acciones formativas, Los cuatro niveles. Barcelona: EPISE.
  • Leuven, Edwin y Hessel Oosterbeek. 1997. “Demand and supply of work-related training: evidence from four countries” Research in Labor Economics 18: 303-30.
  • Lynch, Lisa M. y Sandra E. Black. 1998. “Beyond the incidence of employer-provide training”. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 52:64-81.
  • Martín Artiles, Antonio y Andreu Lope. 1999. “¿Sirve la formación para tener empleo?”. Papers 58: 39-73.
  • Maruani, Margaret. 1993. “La cualificación, una construcción social sexuada”. Revista de Economía y Sociología del Trabajo 21-22: 41-50.
  • Mato, Francisco J. 2010. “La formación continua en España desde una perspectiva comparada: balance y propuestas de mejora”. Papeles de Economía Española 124: 266-280.
  • Maximiano, Sandra y Hessel Oosterbeek. 2007. “On the determinants of workers’ and firms’ willingness to train”. Conference paper, European Association of Labour Economists (EALE), Oslo.
  • Mayorga, Mauricio. y Evelyn. Muñoz. 2000. La técnica de datos de panel. Una guía para su uso e interpretación.Banco Central de Costa Rica. Departamento de investigaciones económicas, Costa Rica.
  • Mignot, Jean-François. 2013.. “Continuing training for employees in Europe: the differences between countries continue to narrow.”.Training & Employmentno 106.
  • OCDE. 2013. Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey o/ Adult Ski/Is. Paris: OECD Publishing. (
  • Oficina Nacional de Prospectiva y Estrategia del Gobierno de España (coord.). 2021. España 2050. Fundamentos y propuestas para una Estrategia Nacional de Largo Plazo. Ministerio de la Presidencia, Madrid. Consulta (
  • Thangavelu, Shandre M. , Liu Haoming, Park Cheolsung, Ang Boon Heng y James Wong. 2011. “The determinants of training participation in Singapore”. Applied Economics 43(29): 4641-4649.
  • Tomaskovic-Devey Don y Sheryl Skaggs. 2002. “Sex segregation, labor process organization, and gender earnings inequality”.American Journal of Sociology. 108(1), 102-128.
  • UNESCO, I. D. E. (2013). Clasificación Internacional Normalizada de la Educación CINE 2011.
  • Villar, Feliciano y Monserrat Celdrán. 2013. “Learning in later life: Participation in formal, non-formal and informal activities in a nationally representative Spanish sample”.European journal of ageing 10(2): 135-144.
  • Watanabe, Satoshi P. 2010. “Determinants of employer-sponsored training participation for young workers during economic downturns: Evidence from the past”. Journal of Industrial Relations 52(4): 491-505.
  • Wotschack, Philip. 2020. “When do companies train low-skilled workers? The role of institutional arrangements at the company and sectoral level”.British Journal of Industrial Relations 58(3): 587-616.
  • Zwick, Thomas. 2002. “Continuous training and firm productivity in Germany” (No, 02-50), ZEW Discussion Papers. Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW), Mannheim.