La psicología ante la disforia de géneromás allá de la ideología queer

  1. Marino Pérez Álvarez 1
  2. José Errasti 1
  1. 1 Universidad de Oviedo

    Universidad de Oviedo

    Oviedo, España


Papeles del psicólogo

ISSN: 0214-7823 1886-1415

Year of publication: 2022

Issue Title: Conducta suicida en adolescentes. La disforia de género a debate

Volume: 43

Issue: 3

Pages: 185-199

Type: Article

More publications in: Papeles del psicólogo


Gender dysphoria in childhood and adolescence is today more under the domain of queer ideology than within scientific and professional knowledge. This dominance of ideology translates into important practical consequences such as self-determination of gender identity based on sentiment and affirmative therapy of felt identity as the only acceptable option. As a result, psychological aspects are left out of evaluation and pharmaco-surgical transitions are undertaken that do not solve the problem for everyone. In particular, there is the new phenomenon of those who regret having changed their gender and detransitionists who would like to reverse the process The health professions, including psychology, as well as psychiatry and paediatrics, should claim the same scientific and professional standards for gender dysphoria as they apply to other problems, starting with exploration, evaluation, functional analysis, diagnosis, prudence, attentive waiting, instead of simply assuming affirmative therapy.

Bibliographic References

  • Almazan, A. N., & Keuroghlian, A. S. (2021). Association between Gender-Affirming Surgeries and mental health outcomes. JAMA surgery, 156(7), 611–618.
  • Alsedo, Q. (2022a). Ame en el laberinto del género: “Creí que era trans, pero me equivocaba”. El Mundo, 19 de abril de 2022. 598b4585.html
  • Alsedo, Q. (2022b). “Dicen que mi hija es un chico, pero en realidad tiene depresión”. El Mundo, 27 de abril de 2022.
  • Ashley, F. (2021). The clinical irrelevance of “desistance” research for transgender and gender creative youth. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity. Advance online publication.
  • Asscheman, H., Giltay, E. J., Megens, J. A., de Ronde, W. P., van Trotsenburg, M. A., & Gooren, L. J. (2011). A long-term follow-up study of mortality in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones. European Journal of Endocrinology, 164(4), 635–642.
  • Bartlett, T. (2019). “Journal issues revised version of controversial paper that questioned why some teens identify as transgender”. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Consultada el 28/4/2022.
  • Bell, K. (2021). Keira Bell, la chica arrepentida de convertirse en hombre, gana el juicio con polémica. Nius. transexuales_18_3052095284.html (consultado el 1/5/2022).
  • Biggs M. (2019). A letter to the editor regarding the original article by Costa et al: Psychological support, puberty suppression, and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with Gender Dysphoria. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 16(12), 2043.
  • Biggs M. (2020). Puberty blockers and suicidality in adolescents suffering from Gender Dysphoria. Archives of sexual behavior, 49(7), 2227–2229.
  • Bilek, J. (2018). Who are the rich, white men institutionalizing transgender ideology?. The Federalist. consultado el 20/5/2022)
  • Bilek, J. (2020). The Stryker Corporation and the Arcus Foundation: Billionaires behind The New ‘LGBT’ Movement. Uncommon Ground Media. (consultado el 20/5/2022)
  • Binetti, M. J. (2021). La ideología queer y sus dispositivos económicopolíticos para sustituir el “sexo” por la “identidad de género”. Red Sociales, 8, 15-30.
  • Bonfatto, M., & Crasnow, E. (2018). Gender/ed identities: An overview of our current work as child psychotherapists in the Gender Identity Development Service. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 44(1), 29-46.
  • Boyd, I., Hackett, T., & Bewley, S. (2022). Care of transgender patients: A general practice quality improvement approach. Healthcare, 10(1), 121.
  • Bränström, R., & Pachankis, J. E. (2020). Reduction in mental health treatment utilization among transgender individuals after GenderAffirming Surgeries: A total population study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(8), 727–734.
  • Cantor J. M. (2020). Transgender and gender diverse children and adolescents: Fact-checking of AAP policy. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 46(4), 307–313.
  • Carmichael, P., Butler, G., Masic, U., Cole, T. J., De Stavola, B. L., Davidson, S., Skageberg, E. M., Khadr, S., & Viner, R. M. (2021). Short-term outcomes of pubertal suppression in a selected cohort of 12 to 15 year old young people with persistent gender dysphoria in the UK. PloS one, 16(2), e0243894.
  • Cass, H. (2022). Independent review of gender identity services for children and young people: Interim report.
  • Chew, D., Anderson, J., Williams, K., May, T., & Pang, K. (2018). Hormonal treatment in young people with Gender Dysphoria: A systematic review. Pediatrics, 141(4), e20173742.
  • Claahsen-van der Grinten, H., Verhaak, C., Steensma, T., Middelberg, T., Roeffen, J., & Klink, D. (2021). Gender incongruence and gender dysphoria in childhood and adolescence-current insights in diagnostics, management, and follow-up. European Pournal of Pediatrics, 180(5), 1349–1357.
  • Clayton, A. (2022). The Gender Affirmative Treatment Model for youth with Gender Dysphoria: A medical advance or dangerous medicine? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 51(2), 691–698.
  • Contra el Borrado de las mujeres (2020). El Lobby. La financiación del generismo queer. (consultado el 20/5/2022)
  • Correction to Bränström and Pachankis. (2020). American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(8), 734.
  • Costa, R., Dunsford, M., Skagerberg, E., Holt, V., Carmichael, P., & Colizzi, M. (2015). Psychological support, puberty suppression, and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with Gender Dysphoria. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12(11), 2206–2214.
  • D’Angelo, R. (2020). The man I am trying to be is not me. International Journal of Psycho-analysis, 101(5), 951–970.
  • D’Angelo, R., Syrulnik, E., Ayad, S., Marchiano, L., Kenny, D. T., & Clarke, P. (2021). One size does not fit all: In support of psychotherapy for Gender Dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 50(1), 7–16.
  • Dagny (2019). Ex-‘trans man’ wants the world to know that social media fuels kids’ decision to change sex. LifeSite. (consultado el 1/5/2022).
  • Dahlen, S., Connolly, D., Arif, I., Junejo, M. H., Bewley, S., & Meads, C. (2021). International clinical practice guidelines for gender minority/trans people: systematic review and quality assessment. BMJ open, 11(4), e048943.
  • De Castro, C., Solerdelcoll, M., Plana, M. T. et al. (2022). High persistence in Spanish transgender minors: 18 years of experience of the Gender Identity Unit of Catalonia, Revista de Psiquiatría y Salud mental.
  • De Celis Sierra, M. (2021). Pensar analíticamente sobre el transgenerismo, una tarea urgente. (Reseña de una controversia y un caso clínico en el IJP de noviembre de 2020). Aperturas Psicoanalíticas (66), Artículo e10.
  • Dentons, Thomson Reuters e Iglyo. (2019). Only adults? Good practices in legal gender recognition for Youth. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and Intersex Youth & Student Organisation. (consultado 25/5/2022).
  • Dhejne, C., Lichtenstein, P., Boman, M., Johansson, A. L., Långström, N., & Landén, M. (2011). Long-term follow-up of transsexual persons undergoing sex reassignment surgery: Cohort study in Sweden. PloS one, 6(2), e16885.
  • Douthat, R. (2021). La sociedad decadente. Cómo nos hemos convertido en víctimas de nuestro propio cuerpo. Ariel.
  • Drummond, K. D., Bradley, S. J., Peterson-Badali, M., & Zucker, K. J. (2008). A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder. Developmental Psychology, 44(1), 34–45.
  • Ekman, K. E. (2022). Sobre la existencia del sexo. Reflexiones sobre la nueva perspectiva de género. Cátedra.
  • Entwistle K. (2021). Debate: Reality check - Detransitioner’s testimonies require us to rethink Gender Dysphoria. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 26(1), 15–16.
  • Errasti, J. y Pérez-Álvarez, M. (2022). Nadie nace en un cuerpo equivocado: éxito y miseria de la ideología de género. Deusto/Planeta.
  • Esteva de Antonio, I., Expósito-Campos, P., y Gómez-Gil, E. (2021). Atención sanitaria a la transexualidad. Necesidad de experiencia interdisciplinar. En R. M. Rodríguez Magda (Coord.), El sexo en disputa. De la necesaria recuperación jurídica de un concepto (pp. 129-152). Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales.
  • Expósito-Campos P. (2021). A typology of gender detransition and its implications for healthcare providers. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 47(3), 270–280.
  • Expósito-Campos, P., Gómez-Balaguer, M., Hurtado-Murillo, F., GarcíaMoreno, R. M., & Morillas-Ariño, C. (2022). Medical detransition following transgender identity reaffirmation: two case reports. Sexual Health, 18(6), 498–501.
  • Flier, J. S. (2018). As a former Dean of Harvard Medical School, I question Brown’s failure to defend Lisa Littman. Quillette. Consultada el 28/4/2022.
  • Gómez-Gil, E., Esteva de Antonio, I., Fernández Rodríguez, M. et al. (2020). Nuevos modelos de atención sanitaria para las personas transgénero en el sistema sanitario español: Demandas, controversias y reflexiones. Revista Española de Salud Pública, 94, 16 de noviembre e202011123.
  • González-Pardo, H. y Pérez-Álvarez, M. (2007). La invención de los trastornos mentales. Alianza.
  • Griffin, L., Clyde, K., Byng, R., & Bewley, S. (2021). Sex, gender and gender identity: A re-evaluation of the evidence. BJPsych Bulletin, 45(5), 291–299.
  • Grup d’ètica CAMFiC (2022). Protección a menores con disconformidaddisidencia de sexo-género. Blog del Grupo de Ética de la Sociedad Catalana de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria. (consultado el 18/5/2022).
  • Hall, R., Mitchell, L., & Sachdeva, J. (2021). Access to care and frequency of detransition among a cohort discharged by a UK national adult gender identity clinic: Retrospective case-note review. BJPsych Open, 7(6), e184.
  • Haupt, C., Henke, M., Kutschmar, A., Hauser, B., Baldinger, S., Saenz, S. R., & Schreiber, G. (2020). Antiandrogen or estradiol treatment or both during hormone therapy in transitioning transgender women. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (11), CD013138.
  • Herbenick, D., Rosenberg, M., Golzarri-Arroyo, L. et al. (2022). Changes in penile-vaginal intercourse frequency and sexual repertoire from 2009 to 2018: Findings from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior 51, 1419–1433.
  • IPsyNet (2018). Declaración sobre cuestiones LGBTIQ+, por parte de The International Psychology Network for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex Issues (IPsyNet), la Red de Psicología Internacional de Asuntos Lésbico, Gay, Bisexual, Transgénero e Intersexual. (consultado 18/5/2022)
  • Kaltiala-Heino, R., Bergman, H., Työläjärvi, M., & Frisén, L. (2018). Gender dysphoria in adolescence: Current perspectives. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 9, 31–41.
  • Kirkup, J. (2019). The document that reveals the remarkable tactics of trans lobbyists. The Spectator. (consultado 26/5/2022)
  • Kirkup, J. (2021). Revealed: the secret trans-rights lobbying operation in parliament. The Spectator. (consultado el 26/5/2022)
  • Levine, S. B. (2018). Transitioning back to maleness. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(4), 1295–1300.
  • Levine, S. B., Abbruzzese, E., & Mason, J. W. (2022). Reconsidering informed consent for trans-identified children, adolescents, and young adults. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1–22. Advance online publication.
  • Littman, L. (2018). Parent reports of adolescents and young adults perceived to show signs of a rapid onset of gender dysphoria. PLoS ONE 13(8): e0202330.
  • Littman, L. (2019). Correction: Parent reports of adolescents and young adults perceived to show signs of a rapid onset of gender dysphoria. PLoS ONE 14(3): e0214157.
  • Littman, L. (2020). The use of methodologies in Littman (2018) is consistent with the use of methodologies in other studies contributing to the field of Gender Dysphoria research: Response to Restar (2019). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 49(1), 67–77.
  • Littman, L. (2021). Individuals treated for Gender Dysphoria with medical and/or surgical transition who subsequently detransitioned: A survey of 100 detransitioners. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 50(8), 3353–3369.
  • López de Lara, D., Pérez Rodríguez, O., Cuéllar-Flores, I. et al. (2020). Evaluación psicosocial en adolescentes transgénero. Anales de Pediatría, 93, 41-48.
  • Malo, P. (2021). Los peligros de la moralidad. Por qué la moral es una amenaza para las sociedades del siglo XXI. Deusto. Marchiano, L. (2021). Gender detransition: a case study. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 66(4), 813-832.
  • Miyares, A. (2022). Delirio y misoginia trans. Del sujeto transgnero al humanismo. Catarata.
  • Moral-Martos, A., Guerrero-Fernández, J., Gómez-Balaguer, M. et al. (2022). Guía clínica de atención a menores transexuales, transgéneros y de género diverso. Anales de Pediatría, 96(4), 349.e1-349.e11.
  • Moschella, M. (2021). Trapped in the wrong body? Transgender identity claims, body-self dualism, and the false promise of Gender Reassignment Therapy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 46(6), 782–804.
  • NICE (2020a). Evidence review: Gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues for children and adolescents with gender dysphoria.
  • NICE (2020b). Evidence review: Gender-affirming hormones for children and adolescents with gender dysphoria.
  • Olson, K. R., Durwood, L., Horton, R., Gallagher, N. M., & Devor, A. (2022). Gender identity 5 years after social transition. Pediatrics, 150(2), e2021056082.
  • Pazos Guerra, M., Gómez Balaguer, M., Gomes Porras, M., Hurtado Murillo, F., Solá Izquierdo, E., & Morillas Ariño, C. (2020). Transexualidad: Transiciones, detransiciones y arrepentimientos en España [Transexuality: Transitions, detransitions and regrets in Spain]. Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición, 67(9), 562–567.
  • Pérez-Álvarez, M. (2021). Ciencia y pseudociencia en psicología y psiquiatría: Más allá de la corriente principal. Alianza,
  • Pluckrose, H. y Lindsay, J. (2020). Cynical theories: How universities made everything about race, gender, and identity. Faber And Faber
  • Pullen Sansfaçon, A., Medico, D., Suerich-Gulick, F., & Temple Newhook, J. (2020). “I knew that I wasn’t cis, I knew that, but I didn’t know exactly”: Gender identity development, expression and affirmation in youth who access gender affirming medical care. International Journal of Transgender Health, 21(3), 307–320.
  • Rae, J. R., Gülgöz, S., Durwood, L., DeMeules, M., Lowe, R., Lindquist, G., & Olson, K. R. (2019). Predicting early-childhood gender transitions. Psychological Science, 30(5), 669–681.
  • Ristori, J., & Steensma, T. D. (2016). Gender Dysphoria in childhood. International Review of Psychiatry, 28(1), 13-20.
  • Rodríguez Magda, R. M. (2021a). La identidad de género y la imposible autodeterminación del sexo. En R. M. Rodríguez Magda (Coord.), El sexo en disputa. De la necesaria recuperación jurídica de un concepto (pp. 17-56). Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales.
  • Rodríguez Magda, R. M. (Coord.), (2021b). El sexo en disputa. De la necesaria recuperación jurídica de un concepto. Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales.
  • Sadjadi, S. (2019). Deep in the brain: Identity and authenticity in pediatric gender transition. Cultural Anthropology, 34(1), 103-129.
  • Shrier, A. (2021). Un daño irreversible: La locura transgénero que seduce a nuestras hijas. Deusto/Planeta.
  • Singh, D., Bradley, S. J., & Zucker, K. J. (2021). A follow-up study of boys with Gender Identity Disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 632784.
  • South, S. J., & Lei, L. (2021). Why are fewer young adults having casual sex? Socius.
  • Steensma, T. D., Biemond, R., de Boer, F., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2011). Desisting and persisting gender dysphoria after childhood: A qualitative follow-up study. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16(4), 499-516.
  • Steensma, T. D., McGuire, J. K., Kreukels, B. P., Beekman, A. J., & CohenKettenis, P. T. (2013). Factors associated with desistence and persistence of childhood Gender Dysphoria: A quantitative follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(6), 582–590.
  • Steensma, T. D., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2018). A critical commentary on “A critical commentary on follow-up studies and “desistence” theories about transgender and gender non-conforming children”. International Journal of Transgenderism, 19(2), 225–230.
  • Stock, K. (2022). Material girls. Por qué la realidad es importante para el feminismo.
  • Shackelton. T’Sjoen, G., Arcelus, J., Gooren, L., Klink, D. T., & Tangpricha, V. (2019). Endocrinology of transgender medicine. Endocrine Reviews, 40(1), 97–117.
  • Taleb, N. N. (2019). Jugarse la piel. Asimetrías ocultas en la vida cotidiana. Paidós.
  • Temple Newhook, J., Pyne, J., Winters, K., Feder, S., Holmes, C., Tosh, J., Sinnott, M.-L., Jamieson, A., & Pickett, S. (2018). A critical commentary on follow-up studies and “desistance” theories about transgender and gender-nonconforming children. International Journal of Transgenderism, 19(2), 212–224.
  • Tordoff, D. M., Wanta, J. W., Collin, A., Stepney, C., Inwards-Breland, D. J., & Ahrens, K. (2022). Mental health outcomes in transgender and nonbinary youths receiving Gender-Affirming Care. JAMA Network Open, 5(2), e220978.
  • Turban, J. L., King, D., Carswell, J. M., & Keuroghlian, A. S. (2020). Pubertal suppression for transgender youth and risk of suicidal ideation. Pediatrics, 145(2), e20191725.
  • Turban, J. L., Loo, S. S., Almazan, A. N., & Keuroghlian, A. S. (2021). Factors leading to “detransition” among transgender and gender diverse people in the United States: A mixed-methods analysis. LGBT Health, 8(4), 273-280.
  • Wallien, M. S., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2008). Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(12), 1413–1423.
  • Van Mol, A., Laidlaw, M. K., Grossman, M., & McHugh, P. R. (2020). Gender-Affirmation Surgery conclusion lacks evidence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(8), 765–766.
  • Vandenbussche, E. (2021). Detransition-related needs and support: A cross-sectional pnline survey. Journal of Homosexuality, 69(9), 1602-1620.
  • Wiepjes, C. M., den Heijer, M., Bremmer, M. A., Nota, N. M., de Blok, C., Coumou, B., & Steensma, T. D. (2020). Trends in suicide death risk in transgender people: Results from the Amsterdam Cohort of Gender Dysphoria study (1972-2017). Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 141(6), 486–491.
  • Withers, R. (2020). Transgender medicalization and the attempt to evade psychological distress. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 65(5), 865– 889.
  • WPATH (2012). Normas de atención para la salud de personas trans y con variabilidad de género. SOC%20v7/SOC%20V7_Spanish.pdf (consultado 20/5/2022).
  • Wren, B. (2019). Ethical issues arising in the provision of medical interventions for gender diverse children and adolescents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24(2), 203–222.
  • Zucker, K. J. (2018). The myth of persistence: Response to “A critical commentary on follow-up studies and ‘desistance’ theories about transgender and gender non-conforming children” by Temple Newhook et al. (2018). International Journal of Transgenderism, 19(2), 231–245.
  • Zucker, K. J. (2019). Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: Reflections on some contemporary clinical and research issues. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48(7), 1983–1992.