Atención plena (mindfulness)por qué es posible que funcione y por qué es seguro que triunfe

  1. José Errasti-Pérez
  2. Susana Al-Halabí
  3. Emilio López-Navarro
  4. Marino Pérez-Álvarez
Psicología conductual = behavioral psychology: Revista internacional de psicología clínica y de la salud

ISSN: 1132-9483

Year of publication: 2022

Volume: 30

Issue: 1

Pages: 235-248

Type: Article

More publications in: Psicología conductual = behavioral psychology: Revista internacional de psicología clínica y de la salud


Mindfulness has gone beyond clinical applications and is beginning to be enthusiastically applied in schools, sport, and business settings. It seems to be a type of intervention that, while probably effective, has a small effect size, which calls for rigorous research. Understanding the psychological processes involved in mindfulness is essential in order to achieve a more realistic picture of its usefulness for some behavioral disorders. How can we explain the extraordinary success of mindfulness in western societies, both in academia and in popular culture? We present three behavioral principles and ideological reasons for applying mindfulness. Nowadays, mindfulness is framed not by mystical existentialism or contextual behaviorism, but by positive psychology and its neoliberal agenda

Bibliographic References

  • Baer, R. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 125-143. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.bpg015
  • Cabanas, E., e Illouz, E. (2019). Happycracia: cómo la ciencia y la industria de la felicidad controlan nuestras vidas. Barcelona: Paidós.
  • Cábanas Díaz, E. y Sánchez González, J.C. (2012). Las raíces de la psicología positiva. Papeles del Psicólogo, 33(3),172-182.
  • Chmielewski, J., Łoś, K. y Łuczyński, W. (2021). Mindfulness in healthcare professionals and medical education. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 34(1), 1-14. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01542
  • Creswell, J.D. (2017). Mindfulness interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 68, 491-516. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-042716-051139
  • Creswell, J. D., Lindsay, E. K., Villalba, D. K., Chin, B. (2019). Mindfulness training and physical health. Psychosomatic Medicine, 81(3), 224-232. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000675
  • Dawson, A. F., Brown, W. W., Anderson, J., Datta, B., Donald, J. N., Hong, K., Allan, S., Mole, T. B., Jones, P. B. y Galante, J. (2020). Mindfulness-Based interventions for university students: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Applied psychology: Health and Well-being, 12(2), 384-410. doi: 10.1111/aphw.12188
  • Donald, J. N., Bradshaw, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Basarkod, G., Ciarrochi, J., Duineveld, J. J., Guo, J. y Sahdra, B. K. (2020). Mindfulness and its association with varied types of motivation: a systematic review and meta-analysis using self-determination theory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 46(7), 1121-1138. doi: 10.1177/0146167219896136
  • Duarte, R., Lloyd, A., Kotas, E., Andronis, L. y White, R. (2019). Are acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions 'value for money'? Evidence from a systematic literature review. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(2), 187-210. doi: 10.1111/bjc.12208
  • Errasti. J. (2002). Introducción a la psicología de la personalidad. Valencia: Promolibro. Fischer, D., Messner, M. y Pollatos, O. (2017). Improvement of interoceptive processes after an 8-week body scan intervention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 452. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00452
  • Fonseca Pedrero, E., Pérez-Álvarez, M., Al-Halabí, S., Inchausti, F., Muñiz, J., López-Navarro, E., Pérez de Albéniz, A., Lucas Molina, B., Debbané, M., Bobes-Bascarán, M. T., GimenoPeón, A., Prado-Abril, J., Fernández-Álvarez, J., Rodríguez-Testal, J. F., González Pando, D., Díez-Gómez, A., García Montes, J. M., García-Cerdán, L., Osma, J., Peris Baquero, Ó… Marrero, R. J. (2021). Tratamientos psicológicos empíricamente apoyados para adultos: una revisión selectiva. Psicothema, 33(2), 188-197. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2020.426
  • Goilean, C., Gracia, F.J., Tomás, I. y Subirats, M. (2020). Mindfulness en el ámbito del trabajo y de las organizaciones. Papeles del Psicólogo, 41(2), 139-146. doi: 10.23923/pap.psicol2020.2929
  • Goldberg, S. B., Riordan, K. M., Sun, S., Kearney, D. J. y Simpson, T. L. (2020). Efficacy and acceptability of mindfulness-based interventions for military veterans: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 138, 110232. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110232
  • Goldberg, S. B., Tucker, R. P., Greene, P. A., Davidson, R. J., Wampold, B. E., Kearney, D. J. y Simpson, T. L. (2018). Mindfulness-based interventions for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 59, 52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2017.10.011
  • Goyal, M., Singh, S., Sibinga, E. M .S., Gould, N. F., Rowland-Seymour, A., Sharma, R., Berger, Z., Sleicher, D., Maron, D. D., Shihab, H.M., Ranasinghe, P. D., Linn, S., Saha, S., Bass, E. B. y Haythornthwaite, J. A. (2014). Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174(3), 357-68. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13018
  • Hartley, M., Dorstyn, D. y Due, C. (2019). Mindfulness for children and adults with autism spectrum disorder and their caregivers: a meta-analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(10), 4306-4319. doi: 10.1007/s10803-019-04145-3
  • Hayes, S.C., Barnes-Holmes, D. y Roche, B. (2001). Relational frame theory: a post-skinnerian account of human language and cognition. Nueva York, NY: Springer.
  • Hofmann, S.G., Sawyer, A.T., Witt, A.A. y Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169-83. doi: 10.1037/a0018555
  • Hsu, T. y Forestell, C. A. (2021). Mindfulness, depression, and emotional eating: the moderating role of nonjudging of inner experience. Appetite, 160, 105089. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2020.105089
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4(1), 33-47. doi: 10.1016/0163- 8343(82)90026-3
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: mindfulness meditation in everyday life. Nueva York, NY: Hyperion.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. Nueva Yok, NY: Bantam Dell.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L. y Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8(2), 163-90. doi: 10.1007/BF00845519
  • Karunamuni, N. y Weerasekera, R. (2019). Theoretical foundations to guide mindfulness meditation: a path to wisdom. Current Psychology, 38(3), 627-646. doi: 10.1007/s12144-017-9631-7
  • Kraemer, K. M., Luberto, C. M., Hall, D. L., Ngo, L. H. y Yeh, G. Y. (2020). A systematic review and meta-analysis of mindfulnessand acceptance-based interventions for affect intolerance/sensitivity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 135, 103746. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2020.103746
  • Kuyken, W., Warren, F. C., Taylor, R. S., Whalley, B., Crane, C., Bondolfi, G., Hayes, R., Huijbers, M., Ma, H., Schweizer, S., Segal, Z., Speckens, A., Teasdale, J. D., Van Heeringen, K., Williams, M., Byford, S., Byng, R. y Dalgleish, T. (2016). Efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in prevention of depressive relapse: an individual patient data meta-analysis from randomized trials. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(6), 565-574. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0076
  • Kuyken, W., Weare, K., Ukoumunne, O.C., Vicary, R., Motton, N., Burnett, R., Cullen, C., Hennelly, S. y Huppert, F. (2013). Effectiveness of the mindfulness in schools programme: non-randomised controlled feasibility study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 203(2), 126-31. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.113.126649
  • Kwon, C. Y., Lee, B., Chung, S. Y. y Kim, J. W. (2020). Do Cochrane reviews reflect the latest evidence on meditation and mindfulness-based interventions? A snapshot of the current evidence. Explore, S1550-8307(20)30202-0. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2020.05.016
  • Liu, Z., Sun, Y. Y. y Zhong, B. L. (2018). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for family carers of people with dementia. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8(8), CD012791. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012791.pub2
  • López-Navarro, E. y Al-Halabí (2021). Effects of mindfulness on psychotic symptoms: insights from a randomized clinical trial. Psychosis, 14(1), 93-98. doi: 10.1080/17522439.2021.1889649
  • López-Navarro, E., Al-Halabí, S., Errasti, J. y Munar, E. (2022). Does mindfulness improve emotion regulation? A study addressing prior methodological issues and the influence of dispositional variables. Mindfulness.
  • López-Navarro, E., Fonseca-Pedrero, E., García-Montes, J. M., Errasti, J. y Al-Halabí, S. (2022). Mindfulness improves theory of mind in people experiencing psychosis: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Psychiatry Research, 310, 114440. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2022.114440
  • López-Navarro, E., Del Canto, C., Belber, M., Mayol, A., Fernández-Alonso, O., Lluis, J., Munar, E. y Chadwick, P. (2015). Mindfulness improves psychological quality of life in community-based patients with severe mental health problems: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Schizophrenia Research, 168(1-2), 530-536. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.08.016
  • López-Navarro, E., Giorgetti, D., Errasti, J. y Al-Halabí, S. (2020). Does dispositional mindfulness mediate the relationship between anxiety and exam performance? Revista de Investigación en Educación, 18(3), 324-331. doi: 10.35869/reined.
  • Martínez-Escribano, L., Piqueras, J. A. y Salvador, C. (2017). Eficacia de las intervenciones basadas en la atención plena (mindfulness) para el tratamiento de la ansiedad en niños y adolescentes: una revisión sistemática. Behavioral Psychology/Psicología Conductual, 25(3), 445-463
  • McHugh, L. y Stewart, I. (2012). The self and perspective-taking: theory and research from contextual behavioral science and applied approaches. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.
  • McHugh, L., Stewart, I. y Almada, P. (2019). A contextual behavioral guide to the self: theory and practice. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.
  • Moix, J., Cladellas, M., Gayete, S., Guarch, M., Heredia, I., Parpal, G., Toledo, A., Torrent, D. y Trujillo, A. (2021). Effects of a mindfulness program for university students. Clínica y Salud, 32(1), 23-28. doi: 10.5093/clysa2020a24
  • Moreno-Jiménez, J. E., Rodríguez-Carvajal, R., Garcia-Rubio, C., Castillo-Gualda, R. y Montero, I. (2021). Long-term effectiveness of a mindfulness based intervention (MBI) program for stuttering: a case study. Clínica y Salud, 32(2), 55-63. doi: 10.5093/clysa2021a1
  • Nisbet, M. (2017). The mindfulness movement: how a Buddhist practice evolved into a scientific approach to life. Skeptical Inquirer, 41(3), 24-26.
  • Oberoi, S., Yang, J., Woodgate, R. L., Niraula, S., Banerji, S., Israels, S. J., Altman, G., Beattie, S., Rabbani, R., Askin, N., Gupta, A., Sung, L., Abou-Setta, A. M. y Zarychanski, R. (2020). Association of mindfulness-based interventions with anxiety severity in adults with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Network Open, 3(8), e2012598. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.12598
  • Odgers, K., Dargue, N., Creswell, C., Jones, M. P. y Hudson, J. L. (2020). The limited effect of mindfulness-based interventions on anxiety in children and adolescents: a metaanalysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 23(3), 407-426. doi: 10.1007/s10567-020-00319-z
  • Pérez Álvarez, M. (2011). El mito del cerebro creador. Madrid: Alianza.
  • Pérez Álvarez, M. (2012). La psicología positiva: magia simpática. Papeles del Psicólogo, 33(3), 183-201.
  • Pérez Álvarez, M. (2013). La psicología positiva y sus amigos: en evidencia. Papeles del Psicólogo, 34(3), 208-226.
  • Pérez Álvarez, M. (2014). Las terapias de tercera generación como terapias contextuales. Madrid: Síntesis.
  • Pérez Álvarez, M., Sánchez, J.C. y Cábanas, E. (2018). La vida real en tiempos de la felicidad: crítica de la psicología (y de la ideología) positiva. Madrid: Alianza.
  • Pérez Álvarez, M. (2019). La psicoterapia como ciencia humana, más que tecnología. Papeles del Psicólogo, 40(1), 1-14. doi: 10.23923/pap.psicol2019.2877
  • Purser, R. (2019). McMindfulness. How mindfulness became the new capitalist spirituality. Londres: Repeater Books.
  • Reangsing, C., Rittiwong, T., & Schneider, J. K. (2021). Effects of mindfulness meditation interventions on depression in older adults: a meta-analysis. Aging y Mental Health, 25(7), 1181-1190. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2020.1793901
  • Romero, R., Penas, R., García-Conde, A., Llombart, P., Pérez, S. y Marco, J. H. (2020). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for Spanish oncology patients: the Bartley protocol. Psicothema, 32(4), 508-515. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2019.320
  • Saunders, K. J. y Williams, D. C. (1998). Stimulus-control procedures. En K. A. Lattal y M. Perone (dirs.), Handbook of research methods in human operant behavior. Applied clinical psychology (pp. 196-228). Nueva York, NY: Springer.
  • Sala, M., Shankar Ram, S., Vanzhula, I. A. y Levinson, C. A. (2020). Mindfulness and eating disorder psychopathology: a meta-analysis. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 53(6), 834-851. doi: 10.1002/eat.23247
  • Schell, L. K., Monsef, I., Wöckel, A. y Skoetz, N. (2019). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for women diagnosed with breast cancer. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3(3), CD011518. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011518.pub2
  • Schmidt, C., Soler, J., Carmona I Farrés, C., Elices, M., Domínguez-Clavé, E., Vega, D. y Pascual, J. C. (2021). Mindfulness in borderline personality disorder: decentering mediates the effectiveness. Psicothema, 33(3), 407-414. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2020.437
  • Scott-Sheldon, L.A.J., Gathright, E.C., Donahue, M.L., Balletto, B., Feulner, M.M., DeCosta, J., Cruess, D.G., Wing, R.R., Carey, M.P. y Salmoirago-Blotcher, E. (2020). Mindfulnessbased interventions for adults with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 54(1), 67-73. doi: 10.1093/abm/kaz020
  • Seshadri, A., Orth, S. S., Adaji, A., Singh, B., Clark, M. M., Frye, M. A., McGillivray, J. y FullerTyszkiewicz, M. (2021). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and positive psychotherapy for major depression. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 74(1), 4-12. doi: 10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.20200006
  • Shires, A., Sharpe, L., Davies, J. N. y Newton-John, T. (2020). The efficacy of mindfulnessbased interventions in acute pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain, 161(8), 1698-1707. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001877
  • Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., Slade, K. y Griffiths, M.D. (2013). Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived interventions in correctional settings: a systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(3), 365-72.
  • Simón, V. (2011). Aprender a practicar mindfulness. Barcelona: Sello Editorial. Spijkerman, M. P., Pots, W. T. y Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2016). Effectiveness of online mindfulnessbased interventions in improving mental health: a review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 45, 102-114. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.03.009
  • Stanley, S. (2012). Intimate distances: William James’ introspection, Buddhist mindfulness, and experiential inquiry. New Ideas in Psychology, 30(2), 201-211. doi: 10.1016/j.newideapsych.2011.10.001
  • Theadom, A., Cropley, M., Smith, H. E., Feigin, V. L. y McPherson, K. (2015). Mind and body therapy for fibromyalgia. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD001980. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001980.pub3
  • Turgon, R., Ruffault, A., Juneau, C., Blatier, C. y Shankland, R. (2019). Eating disorder treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of mindfulness-based programs. Mindfulness, 10, 2225-2244. doi: 10.1007/s12671-019-01216-5
  • Valiente-Barroso, C., Sáiz-Obeso, J. y Martínez-Vicente, M. (2021). Satisfacción vital y sintomatología prefrontal como predictores de la atención plena disposicional en la mujer rural. Behavioral Psychology/Psicología Conductual, 29(2), 489-503. doi: 10.51668/bp.8321215s
  • Wolpe, J. (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Redwood City, CA: Standford University Press.