Adherencia a un estilo de vida saludable en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en España

  1. M.P. Pérez Unanua 1
  2. M. Alonso Fernández 2
  3. F. López Simarro 3
  4. T. Soriano Llora 4
  5. I. Peral Martínez 5
  6. J. Mancera Romero 6
  1. 1 Centro de Salud Dr. Castroviejo, Madrid, España
  2. 2 Centro de Salud de La Ería, Oviedo, Asturias, España
  3. 3 Área Básica de Salud Martorell, Martorell, Barcelona, España
  4. 4 Centro de Salud Canal de Panamá, Madrid, España
  5. 5 Centro de Salud Lorca Sur, Lorca, Murcia, España
  6. 6 UGC Ciudad Jardín, Málaga, España
Journal:
Semergen: revista española de medicina de familia

ISSN: 1138-3593

Year of publication: 2021

Issue: 3

Pages: 161-169

Type: Article

DOI: 10.1016/J.SEMERG.2020.08.009 DIALNET GOOGLE SCHOLAR

More publications in: Semergen: revista española de medicina de familia

Abstract

Objectives The aim of this study was to report on the main lifestyle components and related factors in adults with diabetes type 2 treated in Primary Care clinics in Spain. Material and methods A cross-sectional and multicentre study was performed on a consecutive sample of patients with type 2 diabetes attending 25 Primary Care clinics between April 2018 and April 2019. Data were collected by auditing the computerised medical records, and an interview. An analysis was carried out on adherence to 4 healthy lifestyle trends (Mediterranean diet, regular exercise, not smoking, and emotional well-being). Results A total of 412 patients were included in the analysis (mean age 69 (SD 8.65) years; 50.2% men). Only a minority was highly adherent to the Mediterranean diet, 92 (22.3%). Regular physical activity was carried out by 189 (45.8%). A total of 361 (87.6%) were non-smoking, and 259 (62.8%) felt emotional well-being. A small number (9, 2.1%) of patients had not followed any of the healthy lifestyle recommendations, with 87 (21.1%) following one, 145 (35.1%) two, 128 (31%) three, and 43 (10.4%) all 4 healthy habits: diet, exercise, not smoking, and emotional well-being. Healthy lifestyle adherence was related to gender. Obesity is poorly associated with adherence to diet and physical activity. The results for age, time with the disease, socioeconomic status, and treatment regimen were not consistent. Conclusions This study suggest that adherence to a healthy lifestyle pattern in DM2 is low. Less than a quarter follow a healthy diet, and less than a half practice regular exercise. Gender is the variable that most influences a healthy lifestyle in DM2, but not age, time with the disease, or treatment regimen.

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