Estrategias de aprendizaje para la elaboración y producción de discursos expositivos y narrativos orales en español como lengua extranjera

  1. Cerero Ayuso, Juan Guillermo
Supervised by:
  1. Ana Blanco Canales Director

Defence university: Universidad de Alcalá

Fecha de defensa: 30 May 2014

Committee:
  1. María Ángeles Álvarez Martínez Chair
  2. Ana María Halbach Secretary
  3. Enrique Aletà Alcubierre Committee member
  4. Lourdes Díaz Rodríguez Committee member
  5. Alfredo Ignacio Álvarez Menéndez Committee member

Type: Thesis

Teseo: 120282 DIALNET lock_openTESEO editor

Abstract

Current methodological proposals are centered on the development of oral skills in the classroom, where the student should become proficient in the use of the target language. That means that the teaching has to make the gradual acquisition of language skills necessary for this, e.g. grammatical, lexical, pragmatics, sociolinguistics and communication, etc. To the general competence of language should be added the strategic competence, which has become increasingly important in the recent methodological debate. So much so, that any current curriculum has to pay attention to the language learning strategies in the classroom as an additional component, which turns the learner into a strategic language speaker who is able, on the one hand, to express himself in an act of communication with his own linguistic resources, and, on the other hand, is able to reflect on his own learning process, thereby promoting both autonomy and the desire to learn life-long learning. However, handbooks or programs in Spanish as a Foreign Language rarely pay attention to this component of strategic learning and its implementation in the classroom in a systematic way at the same level as other curricular elements, for example the teaching of grammar or vocabulary. So, when we are faced with the question of what is the difference between good languages learners and bad ones, the answer may lie precisely in the development of language learning strategies, given that they can enable the achievement of the language tasks effectively because they implement the necessary cognitive activities, as well as metacognitive and socialaffective strategies necessary. It follows that just as we teach students grammar, lexical or phonetic contents, for example, we must not forget that if we develop a strategic level this can be the motor for the performance of the learning process with a greater success in all the rest of language areas, because there has been obtained an increase of communicative competence. This end is more easily achieved if, as we propose in this thesis, we introduce the language learning strategies in the Language courses, which in our case are focused on the integration of language learning strategies for development of oral skills in argumentative and expository texts. It was also very interesting to see whether using strategies of communicative competence has benefited other language skills, such as writing, or to determine to what extent the development of the strategic component has a positive effect on them. In this way, the aim of a language teacher based on this concept is to encourage of interactive mechanisms that allow the learners to communicate in a more effective way at the same time as this learning experience improves their own performance. This teaching approach focused on Strategic Learning is particularly relevant, as demonstrated, because it is focused on the action and on the individual learner. However, we must not forget that the teachers should be a guide in the learning process and gradually they will transfer responsibility to the learners in favour of autonomous learning. So, the knowledge of language learning strategies by teachers turns out to be essential in order to get strategic and competent learners in the classroom, which means that the teachers have the responsibility to enable language learners to become Strategic Learners. This doctoral thesis carries out a review of the theoretical basis necessary to have knowledge of the development and implementation of language learning strategies in the classroom as part of the curriculum and aims to establish whether the improvement of strategic competence has a positive influence on communication skills and oral communication. We also add useful information about learning styles, factors that influence the development of language learning strategies, along with a taxonomy of these strategies in the field of communication skills. With respect to methodology, we develop the theoretical approaches proposed by “Action research in the classroom” according to Elliot and Latorre (among others). The aim of this process is to improve the educational action in the classroom through observation, reflection and analysis of the situation, with the aim of finding a solution that allows to respond adequately to situations of classroom teaching activity, and to improve its practice. In this context, teacher and students are located in the observer's perspective and act together as central parts of the same reality (students and teachers themselves become observers). The instruments that have been used for data collection are questionnaires, learning diaries, contrasting of sources, interviews, etc. From this thesis two aspects are deduced: on the one hand, that the systematic development and integration of language learning strategies in the classroom activity can improve especially the speaking skills, and thus the communicative competence for several reasons (it encourages independent learning, maximises language resources available to the learner and increases the social-affective aspects); on the other hand, that their implementation in the curriculum of languages is of the same importance as that of the other components related to the language.